An Unprecedented Evil Persecution CCP China Chinese Communist Party Chinese Regime Evil Persecution Falun Gong Falun Gong practitioners forced organ harvesting freedom of belief genocide Humankind Jiang Zemin Latest Special Special Series the epoch times

"Unprecedented Persecution of the Evil" – Chapter Thirteen: China's Execution and Transplant System and International Institutions: Too Sticky Basket?

Cooperation in Evil Graph

The Epoch Occasions proudly publishes "Unprecedented Persecution of Evil: A Genocide Against the Good of Humanity" (ed. Dr. Torsten Trey and Theresa Chu. 2016. Clear Perception Publishing). The guide helps to know the want for compulsory organ harvesting in China by explaining the root cause of this cruelty: the genocide by the Chinese authorities towards Falun Gong practitioners.


The relationship between organ transplantation and execution in China and skilled affiliation responses spotlight the tensions between disciplinary standards and self-regulation. The traits that justify the unique authorized standing of the professions embrace specialized expertise, self-regulation (code of conduct and self-discipline) and the pursuit of the public curiosity, together with safety towards "blasting and extortion". (1) Subsequently, "it alone must exercise discipline over its members and, having regard to fundamental human rights, remove criminals from its lists." (2) What answer must be given when the entire professional context does not present respect for elementary human rights,


After years of banning in 2005, Huang Jiefu, the Deputy Minister and Hepatic Transplant Surgeon, admitted that executions have been China's main source of life. (3) 1) (4), there has been little recognition in professional society debate, despite growing recognition amongst professionals and ethics amongst physicians.

Professor Shi Bingyi (transplant already Beijing, 309th Liberation Military Hospital) reported that organ transplantation peaked at 20,000 a yr – 2006, not 2004, so if accurate, inconsistent MOH knowledge was offered. (7)

Proof from Falun Gong sources has led to European Parliament Decision 2013/2981, (December 2013), (8) and the US Overseas Affairs Parliamentary Committee on Overseas Affairs adopted Home Resolution 281 unanimously in July 2014, and expresses its concern over continuing, credible on the assortment of organs from non-consensual prisoners of conscience in the Individuals's Republic of China, together with quite a few Falun Gong practitioners imprisoned for his or her spiritual beliefs and different spiritual and ethnic minority groups. "(9)

The chart characterizes a provide-based mostly market, not just a rise in capability; provide chain refined (2004-2005) to serve the productive transplant vacationer circulate. (10) In 2005, on the website of the China International Transplantation Community Help Middle, she stated, "Guts can be found right away!" (11) The place are such "service providers"?

Liver transplants have been left with minor kidneys prior to 2000 (<350), peaking in 2005 (3,500+) before falling to under 2004 ranges in 2006. This reflects the quite a few hospitals which have entered the extra lucrative liver transplant market after the peak of the kidney. By 2006, greater than 500 Chinese language hospitals had liver transplants, in contrast with about 100 in the US (12).

Hao Wang's 2007 time collection research (knowledge, 1993-2005) exhibits confirmed Falun Gong arrest deaths (2,773, 1999-2005) to foretell liver transplant tendencies very significantly (t = 10.16, p <0.00001), whereas Chinese media implementation studies no (t = zero.57, p = .5792). The research exhibits that, outdoors the official rationalization, legal executions are the supply of an "extra" organ explosion. Other demise-tortured grata have little switch worth; Nevertheless, a Falun Gong practitioner who refused to resume or determine him as a detainee might generate lots of of hundreds of dollars. Preparatory examinations (blood samples, X-rays, and so on.) are many occasions confirmed. (13) In 2006, 120 invitations to hospitals and 36 detention centers and courts acquired 19 recognitions of obtainable Falun Gong organs. The difficulty of procurement was thought-about by many to be a sensitive secret. (14)


Given the disciplinary and business information of China's execution and transfer system, this chapter examines two institutional documents and materials help providers:

Transplantation Society Member Letter of November 6, 2006 (hereinafter & # 39; Member Letter & # 39; 39;). (15)

Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trade and Transplant Tourism (2008). (16)

Pharmaceutical and Diagnostic Benefits and Help. In addition to China's fluctuating ethical self-assessments, execution-based mostly displacement has been termed, relying on the context, unethical, immoral, evil, barbaric, or genocide. The first technique of international transplant organizations has been principally "constructive engagement", not isolation. Are the efforts or actions of market seekers legal or involved? Has proximity to China made it potential to continue?

Collaboration in Evil? Heuristic Body

Although opprobrum's terms are applicable, a more distinctive structure might clarify intimacy and guilt: co-operation in evil (quoting Catholic taxonomy). A term aside from "evil" may be used, nevertheless, indicating the diploma of severity assigned to the diploma in question.

The cooperation considerations the act of procuring / transferring organs of executed individuals. Agent to carry out; companions assist. Both one may be private or institutional. There are three levels of cooperation: intentional (formal) or sensible (materials) cooperation; the nature of the materials help (direct or intermediary); and the degree of proximity of the show (Proximate or Remote). (17)

  Cooperation in Evil Graph Formal Collaboration Considerations Function (Approving Source for Transplant Tourism). Quick material cooperation consists of the crucial enter (schooling). Brokerage inputs are contextual but not integral. Those close to you possibly can lead to the act (by agreeing to attend a tutorial transplant presentation); the remote does not sell itself (surgical curtains to the hospital). It might triple design, provide the crucial materials and be intently involved. Until the act is inherently evil, the context will decide. Subsequently, good in a single context (transplantation) might symbolize evil in another (execution – transplantation). Objective, the moral nature of the act, and its penalties are both concerned.

In China, physicians (i.e., major topics) execute together in the choice and timing of organ transplants (18) (19) (if organs are usually not alive). , elevating the question of whether organ availability is a "by-product" (aftermarket, value added) or whether or not prisoners are being executed for organs.

Transplantation Society Member Letter November 6, 2006 – Does Change Produce Proximity?

Transplantation Society (TTS) is a "non-governmental organization officially affiliated with the World Health Organization." (20) Transplantation, the official journal, "the industry's most cited and influential journal", with a imaginative and prescient to "provide a focus on global leadership in transplantation" in practical improvement, 'scientific communication', 'advanced coaching' and 'moral apply guides'. TTS has over 6,500 members in over 100 nations and each 5 years has over 5,000 individuals.

On November 6, 2006, TTS revealed a 3-web page membership letter from China and other nations that did not comply with its policies and ethics or membership statements. It introduced that it might work with the WHO and Chinese authorities businesses to "develop a legal framework to meet the practical requirements of the TTS" and the WHO Guiding Rules. (21) To this finish, "interaction with the Chinese authorities is the only correct way to bring about lasting change". and "must be guided by Chinese government policy"; suggesting different routes can be "wrong". As well as, TTS endorsed the current MOH statement on "new ethical standards".

Prior to 2006, centralized control was not attempted; A nicely-related army medical system outdoors the MOH was driving a lucrative transplant tourism growth (Bing Shang soldiers in the trade) with few organs for abnormal Chinese. Until the Dying Penalty Evaluate returned to Beijing in November 2005, the Decentralized Demise Penalty offered broad discretion for 68 dying sentences, as did the seasonal “hard strike campaigns”, decreasing to 55 in 2011 and 46 in 2014 (22). )

TTS Membership Letter Introduces Four "Realities and Principles"; 1) China visibility (over 11,000 relocations in 2005). 2) "Almost all organs are likely to have been obtained from executed prisoners." 3) "As a professional society, TTS cannot tell China that its death penalty policy is unethical" – regardless of documented arbitrariness. Relatively, "TTS should express concern that the return of organs from executed prisoners has led to swift commercialization and transplant tourism." four) MOH intends to determine national controls, establish proxies, ban organ trafficking, forestall human trafficking / tourism, set up deceased donation (mind) ) and self-sufficiency with deceased and dwelling donors. Strongly emphasizing the improbability of prisoners' voluntary consent, "financial incentives for the return of organs to executed prisoners may become an incentive to increase the number of organs available for transplantation."

For China, Letter of Satisfaction with TTS Membership to All Signatories of Accession. ; TTS assembly visitors might embrace individuals who delegate implementing our bodies (dialogue / promotion of options); Non-executed Chinese scientific shows and research collaborations when IRB / Helsinki Declaration compliant are welcome. Member lectures and expertise can help China's program if "where possible" does not promote government use; and international registries might settle for properly labeled executed transplant knowledge for transparency / demographics, however not general earnings reporting.

By 2005, China's International Transplant Community Help Middle demonstrated its virtually solely Western schooling (eleven surgeons and two docs). (23) The TTS letter unexpectedly encourages Western establishments to simply accept new switch trainees from executed packages, offered that "wherever possible" the intention is to comply with the TTS tips. Nevertheless, some institutions took a radically totally different strategy: in December 2006, transplant centers in Queensland, Australia, denied further training for Chinese surgeons and associated joint research. (24)
Although TTS doesn’t intend to use executed persons (no "formal cooperation"). "or difficulties in tracking membership or registration" if they’re suitable), analysis discussions provide mediation help for returning to China; the content material of the assembly (new applied sciences) makes a big contribution; and new schooling will improve the capacity of any supply of dwelling.

Does the TTS Member Letter strategy work? – Seven years later (February 27, 2014), TTS and the Istanbul Conservation Group Declaration issued an open letter to Xi Jinping, President of China, President of the Individuals's Republic of China: Preventing China's battle towards corruption by way of organ transplantation. (25) "Human Rights Culture," Xi's Name to Continue Engaged on Unethical Transplantation Strategies, "Liberation of Chinese Society from Corruption," including Pressured Consent, "Reputable Transactions between Transplant Surgeons and Local Judiciary and Criminal," transplant tourism advertising; to sum up, 'many years of abuse'. These embrace the 2008 Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trade and Transplant Tourism. Istanbul Declaration on Organ Commerce and Transplant Tourism

. April – 2 Might 2008. Istanbul Summit to "Finalize Declaration on Consensus" on Organ Trade and Transplant Tourism. A draft work was prepared by the Steering Committee (TTS and the International Society of Nephrology Management). Roughly 170 invited potential members represented totally different nations and interests; 160 individuals accepted (4 from China) and 152 members. The spreadsheet confirmed the individuals of the Individuals's Republic of China the rules of governance and communication plan, in addition to the MOH consultant Zhao Minggang for cellular tourism. (26)

The principle of the Sixth Declaration dealt with organ trafficking / transplant tourism, referring to the World Well being Meeting (WHA) Decision
44.25 Human Organ Transplantation (1991). (27)

Precept 6a) Requires advertising, offering and transmitting bans; (6b) Penal screening, transplantation and activities that "facilitate, encourage or use organ trafficking or products used in transplant tourism". Medicines or different subsidies aren’t mentioned, apart from the recognition of Astellas Prescription drugs Summit Funding – the largest supplier of prescription drugs. – Refusal medicine in China.

Principle 6c) Captures prisoners first and final.

“Practices that generate delicate individuals or teams (resembling illiterate and impoverished individuals, undocumented immigrants, prisoners, and political or financial refugees) to turn into dwelling donors are incompatible with the objectives of organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplantation. "

… only dwelling donors, not executed (until they are killed by organ removing). By April 2008, all Summit individuals knew about China's ongoing source of life: a whole lot of executions every month. Was this mentioned pointless as a result of of promises of reform or as a barrier to Chinese representatives? (28) [19659007] In 2008, TTS granted the President of the International Award for Huang Jiefulle "favorable movements and good related to China's organ transplantation in the progress …" (29) The accountable Surprisingly civilian organ procurement practices, Vice Chairman Huang Huang, who at the finish of 2008, further mentioned the acquisition of these executed 90 (30)

Istanbul Arrest Group Declaration (DICG).) was established in 2010 to advertise the rules of the Declaration, with individuals and organizers later talking about China's ongoing actuality of execution and transplantation. (31) Nevertheless, the silence of the Declaration – which has not been registered as a priority – continues to be a notable event in disciplined self-censorship.

Help Providers and Modified Pursuits

Every TTS web site acknowledges 4 corporate sponsors: Astellas Pharma, Japan, One Lambda (Thermo Fisher Scientific), Sve Roche and Sanofi in Paris. Everyone in China has vital stakeholders who will not be detached to TTS coverage.

Astellas Pharma

Astellas Pharma China, Inc. states that immuno-suppressive use of Prograf® (tacrolimus) has been shown to inhibit liver and kidney transplant rejection in China since 1999. (32) This occurred previous to Wang Guoq's major congressional certification in 2001, including these still dwelling. There are over 20,000 instances of tacrolimus use in China and 20 million worldwide. Chinese language patients account for zero.1%. Not surprisingly, does not mention that docs and patients prescribing Prograf® rely primarily on executed organs.

Astellas Starts Drug Testing in China for Statistics on Executioners after TTS Membership Letter; March 2007 (42 pays), July 2007 (240 kidneys) and January 2008 (172 pays). (33) Prograf® Research Website, First Individuals's Hospital (Shanghai) Recognized Falun Gong Sources on March 3, 2006. (34) [19659007] In 2011, famend etiologists and transplant surgeons declared a period of boycotting of Chinese transplant science and drugs (35) and said that “Pharmaceutical companies are continuing their marketing efforts and participating in research that covers various aspects of organ transplantation in China. “In 2011, Astellas introduced Advagraf® (“ new Prograf capsules ”) to the Individuals's Republic of China. (36) Despite a nicely-recognized implementation transfer, Astellas seeks a monopoly claiming that "the use of other immunosuppressive drugs cannot control graft rejection" (37). )

Immunosuppressive therapy is in the middle of choosing and killing prisoners, but without it, much less close matches can be used. In 1999, Astellas in all probability didn't know, however now it's value expanding to such a system. Astellas might declare a moratorium date and put considerable strain on it as an alternative of persevering with cooperation. Immunosuppressive remedy shouldn’t be intently linked to implementation, however there’s help for the market via organs.

Whether an organization can predict a lucrative market place might grow to be topic to public exposure and which corporate executives and shareholders might, after recognition, abdomen.


Roche began anticancer drug trials in China in April 2006; 36 hearts, 90 liver and by September 2008, 210 kidneys. (38) One Roche research on March 16, 2006 used the liver transplantation middle of Shanghai Jiaotong University Hospital, the place Dr. Dai identified obtainable organs within every week, including Falun Gong. sources. (39)
In September 2009, Arne Schwarz asked the

officer liable for Roche's compliance. Answer: “As mentioned above, Roche just isn’t answerable for the supply of organs in China or another nation in the world. Most personally, the anonymity and privateness of donor info is protected by regulation. Roche has no proper to know where or where the donated organs come from. '(40) Moveable journals now require certification of a non-executed source, why not Roche? If the majority of the organs originate unethically, company duty can’t disguise behind the anonymity and privateness foil. Here, each serve a lethal system and threaten conscience prisoners, mainly but not restricted to Falun Gong.

In 2010, Roche legitimately acquired two undesirable "Public Eye Awards" at Cell Cept® in Davos, Switzerland. One Lambda (Thermo Fisher Scientific)

One Lambda is a world-leading manufacturer of HLA tissue sort varieties, HLA antibody detection, transplant tracking and diagnostic products. The ones we acquired in 2012 “complement our current immunosuppressive assays used to monitor drug levels in transplant patients,” a chance to accelerate progress quicker than the United States. (41) Roche's 2012 annual report describes $ 700 million in sales to China (up 22%), mainly laboratory provides, which are very in line with China's five-yr plan. (42)


In 2013, Sanofi, based mostly in Paris, spent 30 years in China at a brand new 3.5B capability capsule facility in Hangzhou. (43) In 2009, it was China's first international biotechnology R&D middle. (44) After acquiring Genzyme Corp., Sanofi arrived at the transplant website in April 2011, including “an immune suppressant and an immune modulator that helps in prevention and remedy. acute rejection. “It additionally distributes anti-thymocyte globulin towards bone marrow rejection. The Chinese language Bone Marrow Donor Program and Database are with the Chinese language Pink Cross. The capture of prisoners has not yet been found. (45)
The collaboration / complexity analysis of TTS sponsors is left to the practitioner reader.


Crossings of the Chinese language Execution and Transfer System and Falun Gong; Professional and business responses, duties and contradictions, whereas considering the nature of responsible cooperation, even in the midst of very deliberate tasks, require a quantity of conclusions and a simpler response.

To anticipate professions, the legitimacy of training them is troublesome even in unethical (in this case, murder instances) conditions, particularly when selling a pure curiosity (i.e. well being); likewise, corporations are giving up increasing markets for moral contraindications.
At first sight, TTS doesn’t recognize its right to the organ. A number of authorized sources don’t redeem the overwhelming majority of illegal ones. China has selectively accepted & # 39; constructive engagement, which has led to elevated capacity (coaching of surgeons) and uninterrupted access even after hospital surgeons and detention facilities have deployed prisoners' our bodies.

Summer time 2005 Professor of Regulation. Qu Xinjiu (College of Political Science and Regulation, Beijing) spoke of China's "Transplant Bank" and identified the lack of consent and the danger that demand from health authorities would affect sentencing. He referred to as for a direct moratorium. (46)

Caution is the advantage of attaining morally commendable objectives by morally consonant. There isn’t a smart path to immoral finish and no smart involvement in immoral means. Both the Chinese hospital and the population are depending on the provision of organs from prisoners, including prisoners of conscience.

Even ending the system of even lethal organ procurement is probably the only option to go while avoiding complexity; forcing the inhabitants, politicians and medical actors to make the determination.

In 2013, Huang, et al. mistakenly said, "the Chinese need for high-quality transplant services is our imperative." (47)> If the Chinese language inhabitants does not value organ transplantation highly because their very own organs are voluntarily enjoying, no transplant can be a logical, ethically required consequence.
Former Deputy Minister Huang referred to as prisoner procurements "in many ways susceptible to unethical, violation of norms, and death penalty reform." In an interview with China Occasions in 2014, he provides a remaining but only semantic answer:

"Executed prisoners can Given the willingness of the death row prisoners to donate organs, they are considered to be volunteers once they have joined our unified distribution system. There is no more so-called death-line organ donation. "(48)

Here, the China Transplant Response System (COTRS) acts as a direct effective disinfectant. China's medical system and population continue to depend on executions; joint choice-making by docs; Western institutions make continuity attainable. All prisoners apart from prisoners of conscience have a selection.

Wang Haibo, COTRS chief: "The question actually is, when can China clear up the donor organ shortage? I wanted we might cease it tomorrow. However it requires a process. Many issues dodge our control. Subsequently, we can’t identify any schedule. '(49) It is clear that the time has come for Western entities to stop authorizing and adapting their activities to ethical duties.

Table of Contents

Previous Chapter: Pointless Nausea Behind Organ Harvesting: An Various to Mentally or Bodily Dying

Subsequent Chapter: Obligatory Dwelling Organ Promise by the Communist Get together of China – What’s a Career, " Canadian Medical Association Journal, 85 (1961): 698-701.

[2] Klass, p. 699.

[3] The following Chinese: final identify, first identify.

[4] Huang J, Mao Y, Millis JM. "Government Policy and Transplantation in China," Lancet 372 (2008): 1937-1938.

[5] Caplan AL, "Contaminated Sources: Trade, Sale and Use of Executed Prisoners for Organ Transplantation Proceedings." , pp. 27-34.

Sharif A., M. Fiatarone Singh, T. Trey and J. Lavee. “Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.” American Journal of Transplantation 14.10 (2014): 2246-222.

[7] Xu, Y. 供 体 短缺 是 制约 器官 移植 事业 发展 瓶颈 (“The donor scarcity is a bottleneck that restricts the improvement of organ transplants "). Science Occasions, 6/15/2007. Comparative graphs:[196590077σγ19459028] European Parliament decision of 12 December 2013 on organ harvesting in China. (2013/2981 (RSP))

[9] H.Res.281 – 113th Congress (2013-2014).

[10] Wang, H. “China's Transplant Industry and Falun Gong Organ Collection: An Economic Analysis.” Thesis. Yale University, 2007. See pages 16-18. See also Gutmann E. Slaughter: Mass Homicide, Organ Collection, and China's Secret Answer to the Dissident Drawback (New York: Prometheus Books, 2014), pp. 217-253.

[11] China International Transplant Network Help Middle, “Introduction to China International Transplant Network Support Center.” © 2004-2005. (Website down. Writer's screenshot obtainable.)

[12] Zhang Feng, "A new rule to regulate organ transplants." China Every day, Might 5, 2006.

[13] Gutmann, 29, 186-187, 233-237, 239-240 (additionally & # 39; Japanese Lightning Christians), 244 (Tibetan Monk Report), 282 (Uighurs), 320-321 (16 out of 50 FG interviews in Thailand) exams). 364 (indexing of check varieties).

[14] Matas D. and D. Kilgour. Bloody Harvest: Killing Falun Gong on Their Organs (Woodstock, ON: Seraphim Editions, 2009), pp. 80-93 (examples of text writing).

[15] Transplantation Association. “For TTS Members,” November 6, 2006. [No longer on TTS website.][19659007francks19459037] “Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trade and Transplant Tourism.” Medical Journal of the American Nephrology Society, three (2008): 1227-1231.

[17] Archbishop of Philadelphia. “Collaboration in Evil” [chart]. S.D. Typo delivered.

[18] Choice lists identified by the transferred vacationer spouse, implementation scheduling is initiated by agreement. Kilgour and Matt, 62-63.

[19] Laogai Analysis Basis, Volunteer Donors: Complete Report on the Use of Executed Prisoners' Our bodies in China (January 2104), pp. 119-120. Nevertheless, the report does not cite evidence of Falun Gong and different prisoners of conscience as sources.

[20] Transplantation Association. “About TTS.” Http://[19659007^[21] The letterhead lists TTS President / Historian Nicholas L. Tilney; Francis L. Delmonico, Director of Medical Affairs. The Ethics Committee, chaired by Annika Tibell, additionally drafted tips for examination by the International Association of Migration Organizations.

[22] AP. 'China is contemplating abolishing the demise penalty for 9 crimes', 29.10.2014.

[23] Listed: College of Nebraska, Emory, Toronto, Hong Kong, Hanoverian University, Minnesota, Tokyo, Kumamoto, Queensland and Flinder Middle. China International Transplant Community Help Middle, "An Introduction to Doctors". Http:// Replace July 20, 2006 Web site down. A screenshot of the writer is on the market.

[24] "Hospitals Banning Chinese Surgeons Training." Sydney Morning Herald, December 5, 2006.

[25] Istanbul Depository Transplantation Affiliation and Declaration, ”open letter to Chinese President , 27.2.1414.

[26] Istanbulin vahvistetut ryhmät eight. huhtikuuta.

[27] Katso asiaan liittyvät päätöslauselmat osoitteessa

[28] ”Julistuksen sisältö on johdettu yhteisymmärryksestä, johon huippukokouksen osanottajat pääsivät täysistunnossa.” American Nephrology Society of Medical Journal, 3 (2008): 1230.

[29]. Kuhn, R.L. Kuinka Kiinan johtajat ajattelevat (Singapore: Wiley and Sons (Asia), 2010), s. 301.

[30] Lancet 372 (2008): 1937 – 1938.

[31] Katso artikkeleita osoitteessa[19659007^[32] Astellas, 移植 免疫: 普乐 可 复 (他 克莫 司 胶囊 、 注射) [“Transplant Immunology: Prograf (tacrolimus capsules, injection).] 19659007] [33] Schwarz, A. ”Kansainvälisten lääkeyhtiöiden vastuut väärinkäyttävässä kiinalaisessa elinsiirtojärjestelmässä”, valtion elimet, s. 119 – 135.

[34] Matas D, ”Lääkkeiden torjunta ja myynti Kiinassa”, Amerikan kansainvälisen oikeuden seuran vuotuinen kansainvälinen lakikonferenssi (LRPP 2012), Hotelli Fort Canning, Singapore, eight. heinäkuuta [sic! 9]2012, s. three -5.

[35] Caplan A.L., G. Danovitch, M. Shapiro, J. Lavee ja M. Epstein. [Same title]. Lancet 378 (9798): 1218. Article / PIIS0140-6736% 2811% 2961536-5 / fulltext.

[36] Astellas, 移植 免疫: 新 普乐 可 复 (他 克莫 司 缓释 胶囊) [“Transplant Immunology: New Prograf (tacrolimus extended release capsules)”.] 19659007] [37]治疗 肝脏 和 肾脏 移植 术后 应用 其他 免疫 抑制 药物 无法 控制 的 移植 物 排斥 反应 .http: // Productshow / pid / 197 / tp / 198 / id / 2.

[38] Schwarz, s. 123.

[39] Matas D, ”Lääkkeiden torjunta ja myynti Kiinassa”, Amerikan kansainvälisen oikeuden seuran vuotuinen kansainvälinen lakikonferenssi (LRPP 2012), Hotelli Fort Canning, Singapore, eight. heinäkuuta [sic! 9]2012, s. three -5.

[40] Schwarz, s. 124 – 125. Transini. per saksa, 113n25.

[41] Thomson Reutersin katutapahtumat. “TMO – Thermo Fisher ostaa yhden Lambda-konferenssipuhelun”, 16.7.2012.

[42] Thermo Fisher Scientific. 2012 Annual Report, p. three.

[43] Sanofi. “Annual Review 2013: Protecting Life, Giving Hope.”

[44] “Genzyme R&D Facility, China,” s.d.

[45] China Marrow Donor Program (CMDP).

[46] Stock, O. “Transplantationsbank China: Warm Roche mit seinem Anti- immunmittel Erfolg haben wird,” Handelsblatt,11/7/2005.

[47] Huang, J., S.-S. Zheng, L. Yong-Feng, H.-B. Wang, J. Chapman, P. O’Connell, M. Millis, J. Fung, and F. Delmonico. “China organ donation and transplantation update: the Hangzhou Resolution.” Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Dis. Int. 13,2(2014):122-124.

[48] Sharif, Fiatarone Singh, Trey, and Lavee, p. four;黄洁夫:内地已有38家医院停用死囚器 [Huang Jiefu: Mainland has 38 hospitals stop using prisoner organs.] three/4/2014.

[49] Kirchner, R. “Keine Organe mehr von Hingerichteten?“ Tageschau, four/14/2014. URLs accessed 11/24/2014.